There are a variety of practices regarding the frequency of the Lord’s Supper. Some celebrate the Lord’s Supper every Sunday and others only once a year. The Westminster Directory of Public Worship says “The communion, or supper of the Lord, is frequently to be celebrated; but how often, may be considered and determined by the ministers… of each congregation, as they shall find most convenient for their charge.” I agree that the Lord’s Supper is to be frequently celebrated and I appreciate the leeway that the Directory acknowledges.
With that being said, I think it’s ideal that the Lord’s Supper be celebrated every Sunday. There is no command in Scripture for this but it seems from my reading of Scripture to be the practice of the early church (see Act 2:42, 46; 20:7; 1 Cor. 10:14ff; 11). It is also a vital element of the gathered worship of the church and is a picture of the gospel so I think we would be wise to include it in the gathered worship of the church every Lord’s Day.
Notice that in Acts 2:42, it says “the bread” (the definite article in Greek precedes the noun bread) and so this seems to refer to more than just eating together. It should also be noted that “breaking of the bread” is listed along with other practices that were common or characteristic of the early church. Also, upon studying 1 Corinthians 11 my understanding of the text is that Paul expected that the Corinthians were and should partake of the Lord’s Supper every Lord’s Day. But they should do it in a worthy manner.
Jesus commands us to together partake of the bread and the cup in remembrance of Him, and so that is why we celebrate Lord’s Supper. We see this in a few different passages (Matt. 26:26-29; Mk. 14:22-25; Lk. 22:17-20; 1 Cor. 11:23-25).
We partake together and first remember Jesus’ propitiatory death for us and so the Lord’s supper causes us to reflect on the past. Second, the Lord’s Supper causes us to reflect on the current fellowship we together experience through union with Christ. And third, we look ahead to the future when we shall feast with Jesus after His return (we “proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes,” 1 Cor. 11:26). Scripture also points us to the importance of self-examination so that we do not take the Lord’s Supper in an unworthy manner and thus bring condemnation upon ourselves (1 Cor. 11:28ff).
The New City Catechism says, “Christ commanded all Christians to eat bread and to drink from the cup in thankful remembrance of him and his death. The Lord’s Supper is a celebration of the presence of God in our midst; bringing us into communion with God and with one another; feeding and nourishing our souls. It also anticipates the day when we will eat and drink with Christ in his Father’s kingdom” (Q46).
The Lord’s Supper is a beautiful and amazing picture of the gospel for us. Jesus’ body was broken and His life was poured out so that we could have life. When we partake of the Lord’s Supper we are reminded of the amazing truth that Jesus—God in flesh—is the Lamb of God that takes away our sin. The Holy Spirit uses the God-ordained and Christ instituted means of the Lord’s Supper to help us remember with thankfulness Christ’s finished work on the cross.